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Octopus Freezing Process – Fisheries in Indonesia have a very important position both in terms of economy, social, culture, and insight into the archipelago. Fisheries are a source of millions of income for fishermen, fish cultivators, fish processors, and fish traders. Fisheries annually also contribute US dollars in the form of foreign exchange and create jobs in contributing to national development. Fish has a high protein content, one of which is octopus.

Also read : Best Octopus Exporter From Indonesia | +62 812-1911-8939

Food doesn’t just give you a feeling of fullness and enjoyment


For developed people, food does not only provide a feeling of fullness and pleasure but must have a high content, product safety, and good quality assurance. Octopus is a fishery commodity that is easily degraded in quality. In a very short time the octopus will rot. With such conditions, it is necessary to make appropriate handling efforts so as not to experience a decrease in quality. Various ways of preserving fishery products have been carried out, but some of them are not able to maintain the natural nature of fish. One way to preserve fish so as not to change the nature of the fish is cooling and freezing.

Description Of Octopus

Octopuses are mollusks from the class Cephalopoda (animal legs located on the head), the order Octopoda with coral reefs in the ocean as their main habitat. Octopuses have relatively short life spans and some species only live as long as 6 months. Larger species such as the giant North Pacific Octopus which can weigh up to 40 kilograms can live up to 5 years in suitable environmental conditions. Reproduction is one of the causes of death, male octopuses can only live a few months after mating and female octopuses die at any time after laying eggs. Deaths from octopuses neglect to eat for about a month while guarding unhatched eggs. Octopuses usually have three self-defense mechanisms: ink sac, camouflage, and a severing arm

Some species of octopus

Some species of octopus such as the mimic octopus have a 4th defense system in the form of the ability to imitate the shape of dangerous marine animals such as lionfish and eels thanks to their flexible body combined with the ability to change color. Copycat octopuses have also been found to change the texture of their fur for better camouflage. The mantle of a faux octopus can look like seaweed or wavy like a rock texture.

Octopus Benefits

According to Fitday (2010), Octopus is a low-calorie source with a slim shape. There are about 140 calories per 3 ounces (85 g) of Octopus, with a fat content of only 1.8 g. Octopus is an excellent source of iron to treat weakness, fatigue, and anemia.

The content in the octopus

Octopus is also a good source of calcium, phosphorus, potassium and selenium and provides important vitamins including vitamin C, vitamin A and some B vitamins, as well as some omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 is an important nutrient that can lower the chances of heart disease, as well as cancer and depression. It can also boost the immune system and help brain development in children.

Octopus also contains taurine

Which is an organic acid that acts as an antioxidant and may protect against some of the effects of stress. Taurine also helps prevent heart disease, although no further research has been done. Some studies have also seen increases in blood sugar levels, but this also requires further research.

Octopus Freezing Process

Freezing is a method of preserving food by freezing ingredients at temperatures below the freezing point of food. By freezing some of the water content or by the formation of ice (decreased air availability), the activity of enzymes and microorganisms can be inhibited or stopped so as to maintain food quality. The quality of frozen fruit is still close to the quality of fresh fruit, although it cannot be compared with the quality of the fruit offered.

Octopus Freezing Process Effects

Freezing can maintain the taste and nutritional value of foodstuffs better than other methods, because preservation at low temperatures (freezing) can inhibit microbial activity that prevents chemical reactions and enzyme activity that can damage the nutritional content of foodstuffs. very real but cannot sterilize food from microbes.

The Basic Theory of Octopus Freezing Process

According to Tambunan (1999), transfer means heat transfer from a material with a phase change from a liquid to a solid, and is one of the common preservation processes for food handling. In the freezing process, decreasing the temperature will reduce the microorganisms and enzyme systems, thereby preventing food spoilage. In addition, air crystallization due to freezing will reduce the water content of the material in the liquid phase in food, thereby inhibiting microbial growth or secondary.

Gradual Freezing Process

The freezing process occurs gradually from the surface to the center of the material. On the surface of the material, freezing takes place quickly in the deeper parts, the freezing process takes place slowly (Brennan, 1981). At the beginning of freezing there is an initial cooling phase where the temperature of the material is lowered from the initial freezing point temperature. At this stage all the water content of the material is in a liquid state (Holdworth 1968). After the precooling stage there is a phase change stage, at this stage crystal formation occurs.


There are three factors that affect food quality, namely physical, chemical and biological damage

Physical damage

Physical damage to food can be caused by physical treatment, such as being crushed, pinched, or injured. This treatment can cause bruising, cuts, and foreign bodies.

Chemical damage

A decrease in the content of chemical compounds in food can occur during the washing and heating process. During the process of washing foodstuffs, many components of chemical compounds will dissolve, such as protein, vitamins B and C, and minerals.

Biological damage

Biological damage to food can or may be caused by the activity of pathogenic and spoilage microbes, in the form of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa.

HACCP Concept of Octopus Handling Process

Optimizing the utilization of fishery resources, initial handling, processing, packaging and distribution, which are more directed at the results of products marketed both domestically and abroad. Efforts to develop export marketing, which are marked by intense competition with the spread of global issues such as “security” and the environment, can be monitored by fostering and controlling internationally accepted quality, which is better known as the implementation of quality management integration (PMMT) which is able to provide or improve product quality assurance so as to increase the competitiveness of Indonesian fishery exports in the international market (Faisal, 2004).

Fishery Quality Assurance

Fishery quality assurance is a mandatory requirement for fishery products that are fit for consumption, besides that fishery quality assurance is a step to increase fishery commodities in the export sector. Quality assurance includes not only an assessment of fishery products, but also nutrition and conditions that must be carried out with various fishery studies.

Certification based on the Fisheries

Certification based on the Fisheries Article 2004 issued by the Director General of Capture Fisheries, quality assurance in Indonesia was initially initiated by the Ministry of Health in 1975 which was then followed by the Fisheries Law no. 9 of 1980 19 which states that the government will conduct quality development and food safety and prevent economic fraud. Furthermore, quality control is adjusted to the development of the international system. Responsible fisheries and HACCP (FAQ. 1995). HACCP is a requirement related to international quality standards that must be adopted by exporting countries of fishery products.

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points

HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) can be used as a benchmark for the quality of a country’s fishery products because this standard adequately represents the quality of international fisheries. In the development of HACCP, this is manifested in the certification given to companies that are eligible to export fishery products. So that in the end this certificate is proof of having pocketed an export permit.

Basic Eligibility Requirements

Basically HACCP enabled stand-alone program but is part of a larger system in system monitoring. In order for the HACCP implementation function to run more effectively, every UPI that will implement HACCP must meet the basic requirements.

Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure (SSOP)

SSOP (Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure) is a standard procedure for implementing sanitation that must be met by fish processing units to prevent cross-contamination of processed products (mangunnsong 2000). In the preparation of standards for the implementation of the danitas procedure, who will carry out and monitor, the implementation of monitoring and other related information. In this regard, what needs to be done in detail are as follows:

Water and Ice Supply

Water for treatment must be safe and healthy, coming from a permitted source with a coliform number (Faisal, 2004). Sufficient water for treatment operations and no use of water coolers or other equipment for washing dishes, waiting rooms, containers, washing tanks and other equipment equipped with fish. Likewise, airports which normally contain oil, dirt and chemicals and factories, cannot be used for the above purposes. Ice must be made hygienically from clean water in its use, ice must be handled and stored properly to avoid transmission and cross-contamination.

Chemicals, Cleaners and Attendants

Octopus Freezing Process – Chemical contamination of food ingredients can occur at every stage of production, from the growth of raw materials in the field to the consumption of the final product. The effect of chemical pollution on consumers is long-term (acute).

Toilet and Hand Washing Machine

The Fish Processing Unit (UPI) must be equipped with adequate toilets. The number of toilets needed is:

  1. 1-9 = 1 toilet
  2. 10-24 = 2 toilet
  3. 25-59 = 3 toilet
  4. 50-100 = 5 toilet

Toilets should be equipped with ventilation and always in a hygienic condition.

Employee Equipment and Clothing

Carried out every before and before the production process or in the morning and evening. Cleaning of the factory/workspace is carried out by removing the remnants of material and dirt to ensure product cleanliness and safety. Cleaning can be done physically such as brushing, hot and cold air spraying, vacuum or chemical suction, namely with special detergents or cleaners, or a combination of physical and chemical. Sanitary medicine from germs can be done, among others, by using a dye solution (100-250 Mg/I).

Cross-Contamination Prevention

Arrange Construction, design the layout of the processing unit to prevent cross-contamination. The cleanliness of employees including work clothes must be kept clean as well as their activities and behavior. Separate frozen and raw products to prevent cross-contamination.

Employee Health

An important thing in a fishery processing process. Employee health should be checked regularly to ensure that no employee suffers from foodborne illness and acts as a carrier of disease-causing microorganisms.

Labeling and Storage Requirements

Octopus Freezing Process – Packaging materials for frozen products must be strong enough, resistant to physical treatment, have low permeability to water vapor, gases and odors, are not easily penetrated by fat or oil, do not increase freezing time, do not stick to the product and do not rub off on the product. Each final product to be manufactured must be labeled with the contents, trademark, country of origin, company name, net weight, composition, expiration date and storage requirements.

Insect Control

The parts of the handling and processing room that are in direct contact with the parts must be equipped with equipment to prevent the entry of insects, rats and other pets.

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)

GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) is a method or production technique that is good and correct or trusted to produce the right product. GMP is an integral part of HACCP. The preparation of SSOP and GMP works to further improve the quality assurance and consistency of the products produced.


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